Mixing phases

  1. active
  2. active

So that a dough is created from the individual ingredients, a lot of chemical and physical processes take place during mixing, partly one after the other, but also parallel. Here, the processes during mixing are put into categories of two phases.

First mixing phase
The first phase is also called the mixing phase. Here, the individual raw materials are mixed homogeneously and, during this time, the flour particles moistened with water. At the same time, initial dissolving and swelling processes begin, whereby sugar substances (monosaccharides, disaccharides), dextrins and proteins (albumins and globulins) are dissolved.

Second mixing phase
As a result of the input of energy by the mixing arms and the reaction of the functional groups (thiol group and disulphide links), structuring of the protein fractions gliadin and glutenin takes place, with a three-dimensional, net-like structure – the gluten network – being formed. The starch kernels are embedded in this.

Processes during mixing:

  • moistening of the starch
  • swelling of the dietary fibre
  • dissolving of water-soluble ingredient
    → protein, sugar, minerals, hemicellulose
  • gas input and gas binding
  • activation of the yeast
  • water storage and formation of the gluten network
  • begin of the enzymatic decomposition
    → starch, proteins, pentosans