Steam baking chambers

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Products like pumpernickel and also some coarse grain breads are baked in steam baking chambers. This is, in fact, more like steaming than baking the products. Here, the heat transfer does not take place via the convection of hot air or heat radiation from heating radiators, but via the condensation of steam at 100 – 120° C. The products are located in special baking chambers here. Coarse grain bread is baked for 4 – 6 hours, pumpernickel for at least 16 hours. Due to the long baking times at low temperatures, an increased enzymatic decomposition of the starch into sugar substances occurs as well as proteins into amino acids. As a result of the Maillard reaction, colour and flavouring substances are formed. Bread made using the steaming process stands out due to a sweetish and aromatic taste as well as good freshkeeping. Particularly in the combination with sourdoughs is the use of malt extract suitable to round off the taste (cf. Schünemann et al 2016; Skobranek 1998).